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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, like metallic copper, and an insulator, like glass. Its resistivity falls as its temperature rises; metals behave within the opposite way. Its conducting properties could also be altered in useful ways by introducing impurities into the crystal structure. When two differently doped regions exist within the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is made. Semiconductor devices can display a variety of useful properties, like passing current more easily in one direction than the opposite , showing variable resistance, and having sensitivity to light or heat. Application of electrical fields, devices made up of semiconductors are often used for amplification, switching, and energy conversion. Semiconductors are wont to produce a spread of device types, including diodes , transistors, and integrated circuits. Semiconductors in their normal state, weak conductors as a current allows electrons to pass, stopping the whole influx of latest electrons and making their valence bands filled up.

• Early transistors

• Optical Processes in Semiconductors

• High thermal conductivity

• Thermal energy conversion

• Organic compounds

• Electrons and holes

• Semiconductor industry

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